A global average temperature rise of 4 °C has the potential to have severe impacts on Singapore.
Global average sea-levels could rise by as much as 80 cm by the end of the century, corresponding to a local, relative sea-level rise of around 65 cm. For a small country with a high population density and surrounded by sea, this could have serious consequences for flooding, coastal land loss and salt water intrusion of groundwater aquifers.
Fresh water supplies are required to support the high population density of Singapore but are limited by the country's small amount of land. Water supplies may be affected in the future as parts of Southeast Asia could see drought events occurring more than twice as frequently.
The unique geography of Singapore makes increasing temperatures under climate change a particular health concern. Any increase in temperature as a result of climate change will be in addition to the higher temperatures that result from the urban heat island effect. In such areas, the combination of hotter daytime temperatures and the lack of respite as a result of warmer overnight temperatures are major factors in heat-related mortality.
Singapore can also be affected by smoke haze pollution caused by forest fires in Indonesia. The climatic changes associated with a global average temperature rise of 4 ºC are projected to increase the risk of forest fires across Indonesia, putting the population of Singapore at a greater risk of pollution-related health problems, such as upper respiratory tract illness, asthma and rhinitis.
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Chow, W.T.L. and M. Roth, 2006: Temporal dynamics of the urban heat island of Singapore. International Journal of Climatology. 26 (15), 2243-2260.
Data Worldbank, 2009
Emmanuel, S.C., 2000: Impact to lung health of haze from forest fires: the Singapore experience. Respirology. 5 (2),175-82.
Koe, L.C.C., A.F. Arellano, and J.L. McGregor, 2001: Investigating the haze transport from 1997 biomass burning in SE Asia: its impact upon Singapore. Atmospheric Environment. 35 (15), 2723-2734.