Met Office Hadley Centre observations datasets
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CRUTEM4 Previous Versions: CRUTEM.

The data for CRUTEM4 version CRUTEM. is available from this page. A more recent version of CRUTEM4 dataset is available from here.

The data are available in two formats: either as a set of compressed plain text files in this data format, or as a set of compressed NetCDF files. Release notes for this version can be found here. Previous versions of CRUTEM4 can be found here.

VariableAs textAs NetCDF
Best estimate temperature anomalies CRUTEM.
Number of observations CRUTEM.
Sampling error CRUTEM.
Station error CRUTEM.
Temperature anomalies including biases
at the upper uncertainty range
Temperature anomalies including biases
at the lower uncertainty range

Monthly updates will add all the available data for one additional month, and may also make small additions or changes to the data for the previous 12 months.

Variance adjusted data

Because the number of observations forming each grid-box average in CRUTEM4 is not constant in space or time, the variability in the gridded anomalies also changes: grid-box averages made from many observations have a smaller variance than those made from few. We have made a "variance adjusted" version of the dataset, where the anomalies have been statistically processed to homogenise the variances.

The strengths and weaknesses of variance adjusted data are discussed in Brohan et al. (2006); please read this before using the data.

The variance adjusted dataset (CRUTEM4v) is available in the same two formats.

Time series data

Global and hemispheric time series for version CRUTEM. can be found here.

Station data

The station records on which the gridded CRUTEM4 dataset is built are available in ascii format in this archive: This archive contains all station records used to build the CRUTEM4 dataset. Note that code previously released for CRUTEM3 cannot be used to exactly reproduce CRUTEM4 temperature series due to changes in the processing methodology used.

Acknowledgements to national meteorological services

The Met Office would like to thank the following countries' national meteorological services for kindly agreeing to the release of some or all of their climate data used in constructing the CRUTEM4 data set. Users of the data are required to abide by any additional conditions for re-use of the data requested from the national met. services as specified below.

CountryNational met. serviceAdditional information (including any conditions on re-use)
Australia Bureau of Meteorology Based on the original temperature observations sourced from records held by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology
Austria ZentralAnstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG) Original data available from the Historical Instrumental Climatological Surface Time Series of the Greater Alpine Region (HISTALP) project
Bahamas Dept of Meteorology
Bahrain Bahrain Meteorological Service (BMS)
Barbados Meteorological Services
Bermuda Bermuda Weather Service (BWS)
Bosnia-Herzegovina Meteorological Institute
Canada Environment Canada Data from Vincent et al. (2012) supplied by Environment Canada (EC) via a direct communication in February 2012. The EC climate series are available from
Cape Verde
China China Meteorological Administration (CMA)
Colombia MdMA
Costa Rica
Cyprus Meteorological Service
Finland Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) For research purposes only
France Metéo-France
Gambia Dept. of Water Resources
Germany Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) Agreed to release of all data classified as essential under WMO Res 40
Greece Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS)
Ireland Met Éireann
Israel Israel Met Service
Japan Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) All stations under ownership of JMA, excludes two stations run by US military in Japan
Liberia Ministry of Transport For research purposes only
Lithuania Lithuanian Hydrometeorological Service
Mauritius Mauritius Meteorological Services For research or educational purposes only
Netherlands Newly homogenised data from Schrier et al. (2011) provided through direct communication with KNMI.
New Zealand Meteorological Service of New Zealand Original data available online from New Zealand National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) online Climate Database
Philippines Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA)
Sao Tome
Singapore Meteorological Services Division
Switzerland Meteo-Suisse
Uruguay Direccion Nacional de Meteorologia
USA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
Uzbekistan Uzhydromet
Zambia Meteorological Dept


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