Climate bulletin - November 2014
Summary of the world's climate in November 2014.
The global average temperature for November 2014 as estimated from the HadCRUT4 data set was 0.49 ± 0.13 °C above the 1961-1990 average, somewhat cooler than November 2013 and a break from the series of near-record global temperatures seen in August, September and October. The global temperature data set GISTEMP produced by NASA GISS also shows a similar pattern. Sea-surface temperatures in the Tropical Pacific were close to or above average in November, and approached but did not consistently exceed El Niño thresholds.
During November, the global average air temperature over land was warmer than the long term average (0.69 ± 0.26 °C). Temperatures were unusually low (below the 10th percentile) across eastern areas of the US and central Canada and in an area centred to the east of the Caspian Sea. Temperatures were also below average in parts of New Zealand and more widely across north America. Parts of northeast Eurasia were also colder average, but not unusually so. Areas of unusual warmth included western Europe, the west coast of the USA, Alaska, and parts of south east Asia and the west Pacific. Australia recorded its warmest November on record for both mean and maximum temperatures.
Sea-surface temperatures were generally warmer than average in November. The global mean sea-surface temperature was 0.48 ± 0.08 °C above the long term average. Areas of unusually low sea-surface temperatures were limited. An area of the North Atlantic, south of Iceland was unusually cold, and an area of the Tropical Atlantic around 0° longitude was also unusually cool. Smaller regions of the far Southwest Atlantic, the Great Lakes and US coastal regions were also unusually cold. Other areas of the sea-surface were below average - including parts of the south east Pacific, a band in the north Pacific extending east from Japan, and parts of the Southern Ocean. Unusual warmth was again widespread, particularly in the northern hemisphere. Large areas of the North Atlantic exceeded the 90th percentile, and the north east Pacific along the coast of North America remained unusually warm. Areas in the Indian Ocean, the seas around Indonesia, and the western Tropical Pacific as well as more limited areas of the south Atlantic were also unusually warm.
The northern hemisphere snow cover (from Rutgers University Global Snow Lab) was 36.57 million square kilometres. November snow cover in 2014 was nominally the 5th most extensive November on record. Snow cover over North America was particularly high, the highest in the series (1966-present) for November. In November, lake-effect snow falls in the Buffalo, New York area dropped over 65 inches of snow. Northern hemisphere (Arctic) sea ice extent was 10.36 million square kilometres. November 2014 was nominally the 9th least extensive November in the satellite record (1979-present). Southern hemisphere sea ice extent was 16.63 million square kilometres. November 2014 was nominally the 8th most extensive November in the satellite record. Sea ice extent data are provided by the National Snow and Ice Data Center in the US.