North Atlantic tropical storm seasonal forecast 2019

Forecast for June to November 2019

Issued 21 May 2019

The most likely number of named tropical storms (winds of at least 39 mph) predicted to occur in the North Atlantic during the June to November period is 13, with a 70% chance that the number will be in the range 9 to 17. The 1981-2010 long-term average is 12.

The most likely number of hurricanes (winds of at least 74 mph) predicted to occur in the North Atlantic during the June to November period is 7, with a 70% chance that the number will be in the range 5 to 9. The 1981-2010 long-term average is 6.

The most likely number of major hurricanes (winds of at least 111 mph) predicted to occur in the North Atlantic during the June to November period is 3, with a 70% chance that the number will be in the range 2 to 4. The 1981-2010 long-term average is 3. 

An ACE index of 109 is predicted as the most likely value, with a 70% chance that the index will be in the range 69 to 149. The 1981-2010 average is 103.

Note: Subtropical Storm Andrea occurred in May 2019 and is therefore outside the period covered by this prediction (June-November).

Our Risk modelling collaborations provide expert advice on seasonal predictions of tropical storms. Please email consulting@metoffice.gov.uk for further information.

Background

'Tropical cyclone' is the generic term for a low-pressure system over tropical or subtropical waters, with intense convective activity (e.g. thunderstorms) and winds circulating in an anticlockwise direction in the northern hemisphere (clockwise in the southern hemisphere). A tropical storm is a tropical cyclone with mean wind speeds of at least 39 mph. The terms hurricane and typhoon are region-specific names for strong tropical cyclones with wind speeds of at least 74 mph.

The North Atlantic tropical storm season usually runs from June to November. The degree of activity over the whole season varies from year to year and is measured in several ways.

  • Total number of tropical storms. The number of named tropical cyclones with winds of at least 39 mph observed over the season. This is the best known measure of the level of storm activity. In this forecast the number of tropical storms also includes those that reach hurricane and major hurricane strength (see below).
  • Total number of hurricanes. The number of tropical cyclones that reach sustained winds of at least 74 mph.
  • Total number of major hurricanes. The number of tropical cyclones that reach sustained winds of at least 111 mph. 
  • The Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) index. A measure of the collective intensity and duration of all named tropical storms, hurricanes and major hurricanes during the season.

The table below shows the number of tropical storms, hurricanes, major hurricanes and ACE index observed in recent years.

North Atlantic tropical storm activity (June-November)

Year Tropical storms Hurricanes Major hurricanes ACE index
2010 19 12 5 164
2011 19 7 4 124
2012 17 10 2 123
2013 13 2 0 31
2014 8 6 2 65
2015 10 4 2 58
2016 14 6 4 131
2017 16 10 6 225
2018 14 8 2 127

Forecast

At the start of each North Atlantic season the Met Office forecasts the number of tropical storms, hurricanes, major hurricanes and ACE index.  Seasonal forecasts of tropical storm activity have been issued annually since 2007. See our previous seasonal tropical storm forecasts for 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 , 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018.

Method

The forecast is made using information from the Met Office global dynamical seasonal forecast system, GloSea5, which is an ensemble prediction system based on a fully coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model (GCM; MacLachlan et al., 2014). This system simulates the ocean-atmosphere processes and interactions that determine tropical storm development. Multiple forecasts are made (using ensemble forecasting methods) to allow estimation of the range of likely outcomes.  The ensemble is then used to produce a best-estimate (or most-likely) predicted value (the ensemble mean) and forecast range (using the spread in the ensemble outcomes). Further details on the forecast method can be found in Camp et al. (2015).

Skill

Recent studies have shown that dynamical models have considerable skill predicting the number of tropical storms - for example successfully predicting the change from the exceptionally active season of 2005 to the below-normal activity of the 2006 season. More recently, the GloSea5 seasonal forecast system successfully predicted the above-average activity that was observed in the North Atlantic during 2017, including the high frequency of tropical cyclone tracks around the northeast Caribbean (Camp et al., 2018). Full details of the skill of GloSea5 to predict tropical storm activity around the world has been documented by Camp et al. (2015).

References

Camp, J., Roberts, M., MacLachlan, C., Wallace, E., Hermanson, L., Brookshaw, A., Arribas, A., Scaife, A. A., (2015). Seasonal Forecasting of Tropical Storms Using the Met Office GloSea5 Seasonal Forecast System. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc, 141: 2206-2219.

Camp, J., Scaife, A. A., Heming, J. (2018). Predictability of the 2017 North Atlantic hurricane season. Atmos Sci Lett. 2018; 19:e813.

MacLachlan, C., Arribas, A., Peterson, K. A., Maidens, A., Fereday, D., Scaife, A. A., Gordon, M., Vellinga, M., Williams, A., Comer, R. E., Camp, J., Xavier, P., Madec, G., (2015). Global Seasonal Forecast System version 5 (GloSea5): a High-Resolution Seasonal Forecast System. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 141: 1072-1084.

 

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