Climate and climate change

Climate summaries

Timing of summaries and statistics

Those interested in climate change and predictions of future climates should also visit the Climate Change pages.

UK last month

December 2019

December began with transient high pressure close to the UK, but by the 4th low pressure and the regular passage of frontal systems resumed, with some very large daily rainfall totals during the next three weeks.  The final week brought rather drier weather to most areas, and became particularly mild at times.  The month overall was rather mild, with only limited colder interludes and fewer frosts than average.

The provisional UK mean temperature was 5.1 °C, which is 1.3 °C above the 1981-2010 long-term average.  Mean maximum temperatures were mostly around 1.0 °C above average, but nearer 2 °C above in parts of the south-east.  Mean minimum temperatures were around 1 °C above average for most areas, but up to 2 °C above average in much of Scotland and northern England.  Rainfall was 116% of average, and it was a very wet month for East Anglia and southern England with a few places getting close to double the average rainfall, and rather wet over central and western Scotland also, but notably drier over north-east England.  Sunshine was 113% of average, and was well above average in many eastern areas but rather below average in some western parts.

The UK monthly extremes were as follows:  A maximum temperature of 18.7 °C was recorded at Achfary (Sutherland) on the 28th.  A minimum temperature of -10.3 °C was recorded at Tulloch Bridge (Inverness-shire) on the 1st.  In the 24 hours ending at 0900 GMT on the 6th, 135.0 mm of rain fell at Seathwaite (Cumbria).  A wind gust of 72 knots (83 mph) was recorded at the Needles (Isle of Wight) on the 8th.  A snow depth of 25 cm was recorded at Malham Tarn (North Yorkshire) on the 16th.

Regional values for December 2019

Monthly, seasonal and annual summaries 2019

January | February | March | April | May | JuneJuly | August | September | October | November | December

Winter | Spring | Summer | Autumn


Monthly, seasonal and annual summaries 2018

January | February | March | April | May | June | July | August | September | October | November | December

Winter | Spring | Summer | Autumn


Historical reports

We produce an annual State of the UK Climate report

Historical climate and weather reports are available from the digital library and archives

Maps, charts and Data

Data tables of UK and regional monthly series 

Data tables of monthly station series 

UK maps of monthly data

Temperature, rainfall and sunshine time series charts

Temperature, rainfall and sunshine anomaly charts

Multi-century climate series

Central England Temperature (series begins in 1659).

UK Regional Precipitation (series begins in 1766).