Hot weather and its impacts
Advice for staying safe and well in hot weather
Summer can be a wonderful season, with lots of time spent outside enjoying the sunshine and warm weather. Whilst many of us like to enjoy the sunshine and hot weather, we should make sure we do it safely and remember certain groups of people are more vulnerable than others to heat or ultraviolet radiation
What is the weather like in summer?
On average in the UK, July is the warmest month and June the sunniest while the rainfall totals throughout the UK in summer can be rather variable. The highest temperatures tend to be seen around London and the south-east with the coolest temperatures experienced throughout Scotland and northern England.
|England||38.7||25 July 2019||University of Cambridge Botanic Garden, Cambridgeshire|
|Wales||35.2||02 August 1990||Hawarden Bridge, Flintshire|
|Scotland||32.9||09 August 2003||Greycrook, Scottish Borders|
|Northern Ireland||31.3||21 July 2021||
Castlederg, County Tyrone
The UK in summer can experience blocking anticyclones which can bring long spells of warm weather and create heatwave conditions.
The UK experiences occasional heatwaves but of a lesser frequency and intensity to those seen elsewhere globally.
A record was broken in summer 2019 with a maximum temperature of 38.7C recorded at Cambridge University Botanic Garden on the 25 July. Previous hot summers have been largely dry, but this summer was the 7th wettest overall in the UK in a series dating back to 1910. June was a significantly wet month for some parts of the UK, for example Lincolnshire received 230% of the rainfall expected for the month compared with the average between 1981 – 2010. Although we saw the hottest day on record during July parts of the country also saw more than one-and-a-half times the months typical rainfall, with Cheshire receiving more than twice the average rainfall for the month (219%.
The summer of 2018 was the equal-warmest summer for the UK in a series from 1910, along with 2006, 2003 and 1976. The hottest day of the summer was on 27 July, with 35.6°C recorded at Felsham (Suffolk); 32°C was exceeded widely across East Anglia and south-east England on both 26 and 27 July and temperatures reached 35°C on both dates in parts of East Anglia, Kent and central London.
Temperatures above 35°C are unusual, but not unprecedented in the UK, having been recorded in the summers of 2015, 2006, 2003, 1995, 1990 and 1976.
In August 2003, the UK experienced heatwave conditions lasting 10 days resulting in 2,000 deaths. During this heatwave, a record maximum temperature of 38.5 °C was recorded at Faversham in Kent.
In July 2006, similar conditions occurred breaking many station records and resulting in the warmest month on record in the UK.
Impacts of hot weather
Whilst many of us like to enjoy the sunshine and hot weather, we should make sure we do it safely and remember certain groups of people are more vulnerable than others to heat or ultraviolet radiation.
Hot weather places a strain on the heart and lungs. For that reason, the majority of serious illness and deaths caused by heat are respiratory and cardiovascular. Older people, those with pre-existing health conditions and young children are particularly at risk. Overexposure to the sun is equally dangerous, with effects ranging from mild sunburn to skin cancer. It doesn’t have to be hot for the UV index to be high.
The hot weather not only affects us but can also place strains on water and energy utilities, road and rail transport and the health and fire services.
In 2006 heat damage to road surfaces was reported from Cornwall to Cumbria, with the cost of repairs estimated at £3.6m in Oxfordshire alone. Speed restrictions were introduced on many rail lines, because of the risk of buckling with the west coast main line particularly affected with delays and cancellations.
In 1990 the fire services were kept busy tackling heath and farmland fires that broke out due to the dry conditions that had prevailed since March that year.
In 1976, one of the most prolonged heatwaves in living memory, the hot, dry weather affected domestic water supplies leading to widespread water rationing.
Make sure you know what to do
Leading health organisations across the UK recommend:
- Try to keep your house cool, closing blinds or curtains can help.
- At night, keep your sleeping area well ventilated. Night cooling is important as it allows the body to recuperate.
- Try to stay cool by taking cool showers or baths and/or sprinkle yourself several times a day with cold water.
- Avoid too much exercise when very hot, which can cause heat exhaustion or heat stroke, and watch for signs of heat stress - an early sign is fatigue.
- Drink plenty of fluids, but not alcohol, which dehydrates the body.
- Try to eat as you normally would. Not eating properly may exacerbate health-related problems.
- Keep your vehicle well ventilated to avoid drowsiness. Take plenty of water with you and have regular rest breaks.
- If you have vulnerable neighbours who may be at risk during a heatwave, try to find out if someone is already looking after them or if they would like you to ring them daily.
- If you do go out for exercise or into your garden, try to avoid the hottest part of the day (11 am to 3 pm) and seek shade where possible. Avoid being in the sun for long stretches. Wear lightweight, light-coloured clothing, high factor sunscreen and a wide-brimmed hat.
- The UV index (the strength of the sun) can be high at many times of the year - it doesn't have to be hot. The UV index can be strong through cloud even when the sun isn't directly shining.
- Reapply an appropriate factor sun cream at regular intervals during the day.
Never leave children or animals in parked cars. Even on cool days, strong sunshine can make car interiors very hot.