The averaging period used for the following assessment was 1971-2000.
The first three weeks were characterised by areas of low pressure moving across the UK from the Atlantic, giving plenty of rain and some strong winds at times. Subsequently, northerly then easterly airstreams brought much colder weather with some significant snowfalls, especially in eastern Scotland and north-east England, and hard frosts in all areas. Despite a generally mild first half, mean temperatures for the month as a whole were typically 1.5 to 2.0 °C below the 1971-2000 average and it was the coldest November across the UK since 1993. Rainfall was close to normal in most areas, but it was well above near the coast of north-east England and well below in north-west Scotland and the Northern Isles. It was a rather dull month across parts of East Anglia and south-east England, but sunny in the north and west. Northern Ireland enjoyed its second sunniest November in a series from 1929.
A maximum temperature of 19.0 °C was recorded at St James's Park (Greater London) on 4th. Minimum temperatures of -18.0 °C at Llysdinam (Powys) and -11.9 °C at Mucker Broughderg (County Tyrone) were recorded early on 28th; these were new November records for Wales and Northern Ireland respectively. In the 24 hours ending at 0900 on 4th, 101.0 mm of rainfall was recorded at Seathwaite (Cumbria). A wind gust of 91 mph was recorded at Capel Curig (Conwy) on 11th, and a gust of 130 mph was recorded at Cairngorm Summit (1237 m.a.s.l.) on 17th. A depth of 58 cm of snow was recorded at Balmoral (Aberdeenshire) at 0900 on 30th.
England diary of highlights
Most of the month was unsettled, with showers or longer periods of rain and some strong winds at times. It turned much colder in the last week, with sharp frosts and some significant snowfalls. Despite a generally mild first half, the mean temperature for the month overall was 1.3 °C below the 1971-2000 average and it was the coldest November since 1993. Rainfall ranged from below 75% of average in parts of central and southern England to over twice the normal close to the north-eastern coast. Sunshine totals were about 50% above normal in the north-west, but it was a rather dull month in most of East Anglia and the south-east.
1st to 8th:
Overnight fog on 1st was slow to clear in some central and western areas. Otherwise, dry with some sunshine but rain soon spread into the north-west, becoming heavy and prolonged during 2nd. This was followed by showers, merging into longer spells of rain in the north. Southern areas stayed dry and quite sunny. After a fine start to 3rd, outbreaks of rain occurred across central areas and heavier rain returned to the north later, where it was windy. Rain continued in the north into the 4th, particularly heavy over the Lake District with 101.0 mm recorded at Seathwaite (Cumbria) in 24 hours to 0900. Southern areas remained dry, but cloudy. On 5th, it was particularly wet from the south Midlands northwards, with variable cloud to the south. On 6th and 7th, sunshine and scattered showers, the showers mainly on eastern coasts, turning increasingly wintry in the north. On 8th, heavy rain spread eastwards, becoming slow-moving in the east. Later, heavy rain affected southern counties. The first few days saw some unusually warm days and nights, with temperatures staying around 15 °C in the south-east overnight 3rd to 4th and rising to around 18 °C in parts of Somerset and the south-east on 4th (19.0 °C at St James's Park, London).
9th to 16th:
There were showers quite widely on 9th which was also very windy in the north. The 10th was dry and bright for most with showers in the east easing. This led to a cold night, but a band of rain spread eastwards quickly early on 11th, heavy at times. The main feature was again the wind, with severe gales affecting northern areas; a gust of 75 mph was recorded at St Bees Head (Cumbria). Temperatures reached 15 °C in the south-east. A band of rain moved eastwards over the south on 12th, whilst central and northern areas stayed mostly dry and sunny. The 13th had a mostly dry morning, but with rain in the south-east. Further rain spread to the west and north, heavy in places, and to central areas later. On 14th and 15th fog lingered in many areas into the afternoon. There were some outbreaks of rain or showers, mainly in the south, but for most it was dry. The 16th was also foggy at first and frosty. Some wet and windy weather approached the south-west later in the day.
17th to 23rd:
It was wet and windy on 17th with very heavy rain moving slowly eastwards across the south-west, causing severe flooding in parts of south Cornwall; 50.2 mm was recorded at Cardinham (Cornwall) in just 10 hours. Sunshine on 18th but also some showers; the east was drier. On 19th, another longer spell of rain spread to the south-west, and fog was again a problem in the east. On 20th, more fog in the east and heavy rain in the south-west, but otherwise dry but rather cloudy. This rain affected central and eastern areas on 21st, turning to snow over northern hills. Sunshine and scattered showers on 22nd and 23rd, the showers especially near North Sea coasts.
24th to 30th:
A very cold northerly flow developed, with showers turning increasingly wintry during 24th and 25th, affecting mainly north-eastern areas, but some central and southern areas later. Up to 20 cm snow was reported in the north Pennines. Through the rest of the period, a north-easterly or easterly flow persisted, allowing snow amounts to steadily increase and showers to spread to other areas, such as parts of the south-west on 26th. There were hard frosts, with temperatures dipping to -10 °C widely early on 28th; -13.5 °C was recorded at Topcliffe (North Yorkshire). By month-end, over 30 cm of snow had built up in parts of the north-east, with 40 cm at Kielder Castle (Northumberland), and 5 to 10 cm, locally 20 cm in parts of the south-east.
Wales diary of highlights
Most of the month was unsettled, with showers or longer periods of rain and some strong winds at times. It turned much colder in the last week, with sharp frosts and some snow. Despite a generally mild first half, mean temperatures for the month overall were 1.8 °C below the 1971-2000 average and it was the coldest November since 1993. Rainfall was generally near or a little below normal. Sunshine totals were well above normal, and it was one of the sunniest Novembers on record, although not quite as sunny as those of 2005 and 2006.
1st to 8th:
Some overnight fog in the east on 1st, slow to clear. Otherwise, dry before rain spread from the west becoming heavy and prolonged overnight and early on 2nd. The rain was followed by sunshine and showers. There was a good deal of cloud and outbreaks of rain on 3rd, heavy over Snowdonia; 70 mm of rainfall was recorded at Cae Poeth (Gwynedd) in 24 hours to 0900. It was also very windy. Rain continued during 4th, particularly in the north with a further 59.6 mm falling at Cae Poeth in 48 hours to 0900 on the 5th. The 5th saw further rain in all areas, moving southwards. On 6th and 7th, there was sunshine and scattered showers, the showers locally heavy and wintry over northern mountains. On 8th, heavy rain spread eastwards, followed by brighter, drier conditions.
9th to 16th:
There were showers quite widely on 9th, some heavy and thundery. It was also very windy in the north. The 10th was dry with some sunshine, but showers affected Pembrokeshire. After a cold night, a band of rain spread eastwards during the morning of 11th, heavy at times. Severe gales affected the north, with gusts of 81 mph at Aberdaron (Gwynedd) and 91 mph at Capel Curig (Conwy). A band of rain moved eastwards on 12th. On 13th, it was a mostly dry, sunny morning but through the afternoon and evening a band of persistent rain spread eastwards. Fog developed on 14th and 15th, lingering in eastern areas into the afternoon, with some sunshine and a few showers in the west. The 16th was also foggy at first and frosty. Wet and windy weather pushed into the far south-west in the evening.
17th to 23rd:
It was very wet and windy in south Wales on 17th with rain moving slowly eastwards during the day. On 18th, there was some sunshine, but also scattered showers, these forming a line across parts of mid-Wales. On 19th, another spell of rain spread into Pembrokeshire, but fog again developed in east Wales, only clearing slowly. On 20th the east saw further fog, with the rain in the south-west easing but otherwise it was rather cloudy but predominantly dry. Rather cloudy on 21st, with some rain. Sunshine and scattered showers on 22nd and 23rd, the showers especially near coasts.
24th to 30th:
A cold northerly flow developed, with showers starting to turn wintry over Snowdonia later on 25th. On 26th, an area of sleet and snow moved southwards giving 2 to 5 cm inland. There was a widespread moderate frost overnight, with temperatures at Trawsgoed (Ceredigion) down to -10.2 °C early on 27th. The following night was even colder, with -15.6 °C recorded at Sennybridge (Powys) and -18.0 °C at Llysdinam (Powys) - setting a new record for November in Wales. By the end of the month, accumulations of up to 10 cm of snow had built up in east Wales and over the higher mountains as the very cold easterly winds pushed snow showers further westwards. The west enjoyed the best of the sunshine, and stayed largely dry.
Scotland diary of highlights
Much of the month was unsettled, with showers or longer periods of rain and some strong winds at times. It turned colder after mid-month and the last week was very cold, with sharp frosts and frequent snow showers in the east. Despite a generally mild first half, the mean temperature for the month overall was about 1.9 °C below the 1971-2000 average and it was the coldest November since 1985. Rainfall ranged from some 50% below normal in parts of the north-west and the Northern Isles to at least 50% above in most of the east. Sunshine totals were somewhat above normal in the west, but near or a little below in the east.
1st to 6th:
A frosty start to 1st, then rain spread from the west, heavy at times, clearing during the evening to showers. Breezy with showers on 2nd but mainly dry in the east, local gales in north and west. Patchy rain in the south and showers in the north on 3rd, before persistent rain spread into the south later. The 4th was wet but mild in the south, with 15.0 °C at West Freugh (Dumfries and Galloway), and the north was bright but cold. Cloudy with scattered showers on 5th with more persistent heavier rain over Perthshire and Tayside. Showers affected many places on 6th, most frequent over the south.
7th to 9th:
Mainly dry and bright on 7th, but wet and windy weather edged eastwards to most places during the evening. Severe gales affected the Western Isles. Wet and windy on 8th, becoming confined to the east later, with 40.4 mm recorded at Braemar (Aberdeenshire) in 24 hours to 0000 on 9th.
10th to 22nd:
Sunny intervals and showers on 9th, the showers wintry at times. A cold and frosty start to 10th with a few showers in the north. Cloud and rain spread in from the west later. A band of rain moved eastwards on 11th followed by blustery showers; 47.0 mm was recorded at Tyndrum (Perthshire) in 24 hours from 0900. The 12th was showery and the south was very windy, with severe gales at first in the south-west. Showers continued on 13th, with snow on hills. A frosty start to 15th, with -7.2 °C recorded at Tyndrum, then dry and sunny before showers during the afternoon and evening. Another frosty start to 16th, with -7.1 °C at Aboyne (Aberdeenshire), then mainly dry. The 17th was cloudy with showers across northern and eastern parts but the south-west saw more persistent rain and strong southerly winds. The 18th continued cloudy with outbreaks of rain, the rain mostly in eastern areas. Cloudy with rain in the east on 19th but drier and brighter in the west. Mostly cloudy on 20th with light rain in the east but sunshine along the west coast. Rather cloudy on 21st with scattered showers, most frequent in the south-east. Further showers on 22nd, mostly across the north and east.
23rd to 30th:
After a frosty start, 23rd was mainly sunny in the south. Showers in the north turned to snow on high ground in the evening. Snow showers fell to low levels on 24th, mainly affecting the north and the Borders. Snow showers continued in the north on 25th, but it was mainly dry elsewhere. Sunny spells and mainly dry in the west from 26th to 28th but snow showers elsewhere, many heavy and occasionally thundery with strong easterly winds at times. Further snow showers over eastern areas on 29th with some snow reaching the west. Cold everywhere, with Altnaharra (Highland) down to -16.1°C early on 29th. Snow showers continued to affect the east and the central belt on 30th. Temperatures failed to rise above freezing in many inland areas from 27th onwards. By the end of the month, more than 25 cm of snow had accumulated in many eastern and central areas with 41 cm at Cromdale (Highland), 44 cm at Nunraw Abbey (Borders) and 58 cm at Balmoral (Aberdeenshire).
Northern Ireland diary of highlights
Most of the month was unsettled, with showers or longer periods of rain and some strong winds at times. It turned much colder in the last week, with sharp frosts and some snow. Despite a generally mild first half, the mean temperature for the month overall was 1.9 °C below the 1971-2000 average and it was the coldest November since 1985. Rainfall was some 30% to 50% above average, especially in Down, Antrim and Armagh. Sunshine totals were about 40% above normal and it was the second-sunniest November in a series from 1929.
1st to 6th:
Dry at first on 1st, then rain swept eastwards followed by showers. Breezy on 2nd with showers, merging into a spell of rain. Isolated showers at first on 3rd before rain arrived later. The 4th was mainly cloudy with rain at times, giving 20.6 mm at Lough Fea (County Tyrone). The 5th was cloudy with showers, most frequent in the north. The 6th started dry and bright then became cloudy with scattered showers.
7th to 16th:
Dry and bright on 7th before heavy rain and southerly gales during the evening. On 8th, rain and strong winds soon cleared eastwards, followed by showers. Sunny intervals and scattered showers on 9th, followed by a widespread air frost with -3.6 °C at Castlederg (County Tyrone). Mainly dry and bright on 10th but rain arrived in the evening. Rain at first on 11th then blustery showers and severe gales with a gust of 70 mph at St. Angelo (County Fermanagh). The 12th had showers, with strong westerly winds easing. Sunshine and showers on 13th. Showers in coastal areas on 14th, but mainly dry with sunny spells inland. Fog patches cleared quickly on 15th, then cloudy with showers. The 16th was mainly dry, before rain swept eastwards during the evening.
17th to 23rd:
The 17th was cloudy with rain or showers, heavy at times and most persistent in the east with 21.8 mm at Helens Bay and 27.0 mm at Ballypatrick Forest (County Antrim) in 24 hours from 0900. Cloudy on 18th with outbreaks of rain, heavy and persistent across the far north. Sunny intervals and a few showers on the 19th. Still a few showers on 20th and 21st but most places were dry with some bright or sunny spells. Sunny spells on 22nd and 23rd with a few showers, mainly over Antrim and Down on 22nd, and across the north on 23rd.
24th to 30th:
The 24th turned colder with showers becoming wintry in places later. Isolated wintry showers at first on 25th before some rain spread in later. Early rain on 26th was followed by scattered showers, some heavy and wintry. Bright or sunny spells on 27th and 28th with sleet or snow showers, some prolonged, especially across the north-west. Further wintry showers on 29th and 30th mainly in the north and east. These last three nights were very cold, especially inland; early on 28th, -11.9 °C was recorded at Mucker Broughderg (County Tyrone), the lowest November temperature on record in Northern Ireland.